The CAH evidence for hormonal influences on toy preference is striking; however, as long as the research is conducted only in humans, socialization and biological processes are confounded. An alternative approach is to examine nonhuman animal toy sex, where socialization for specific monkey is unlikely to determine preferences.
As with boys, juvenile male monkeys engage in more girl play than their female counterparts Alexander and Hines, ; Hines and Kaufman, ; Lovejoy and Wallen, ; Maccoby, ; Wallen, ; Wallen,while girls and juvenile female monkeys show a greater interest in young infants Herman et al. These striking behavioral parallels are not reflected in parallel effects of prenatal androgen exposure in monkeys and humans. Although rough and tumble play is strongly influenced by prenatal androgen exposure in monkeys Goy et al.
Similarly, infant interest has been found to be less marked in CAH girls Leveroni and Berenbaum,but not in female monkeys treated prenatally with small doses of androgen Herman, et al. While these contrasting results from single studies in monkeys and humans may reflect ineffective androgen my free cams clarababylegs or inappropriate timing of androgen exposure for the behavioral endpoints, it cannot be ruled out that factors other than androgens influence the development and expression of these behaviors.
Nevertheless, if toy preferences stem from activity preferences, behavioral parallels in humans and monkeys predict sex differences in monkey toy preferences. Instead they compared the relative proportion of interaction times with singly presented toys as a proxy for preference Alexander and Hines, A similar, but opposite, difference was found for the proportion of interactions directed towards feminine toys, suggesting clear between-sex differences in preference for masculine and feminine toys similar to that seen in humans.
When comparisons were made within sex for the magnitude of the preference, however, the results differed significantly from findings in humans. Unlike boys, male vervets spent comparable percentages of time with both masculine and feminine toys, showing no gendered toy preference. Lip kiss and buttocks sex girls, female vervets spent a significantly greater proportion of time with feminine than with masculine toys.
Thus, magnitudes of preferences in vervets were opposite to those seen in children. A more parsimonious explanation is that since the vervets were never presented with actual toy choices the results do not accurately reflect preferences, but show substantial cross sex willingness to play with any toy.
Thus although there are substantial concordances between human and nonhuman primate gendered social behavior, nonhuman primate data leave unresolved the relative concordance between human and nonhuman primate gendered toy preferences. We investigated toy preferences in rhesus monkeys living in a member long-term stable outdoor group by presenting the group with multiple trials of simultaneous access to different two toy combinations of multiple toys: one putatively masculine and one putatively feminine.
We present here striking evidence of a sex difference in rhesus monkey preference for human gender-stereotyped toys paralleling that reported in humans, suggesting that gender differences in toy choice may reflect evolved sex differences in activity preferences not primarily resulting from socialization processes.
Subjects were rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta members of a multi-male, multi-female social group of animals that had lived together for more than 25 years at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center Field Station. This social group had a species-typical multiple matriline social structure with a full age-range of group members from infants to adults. Fourteen animals were not included in analyses because they had been girl to varying hormonal girl prenatally, but there were not enough subjects in any one treatment sex to systematically analyze preferences.
Additionally, the interactions of 39 newborn 0—3 months infants, while minimal, were not coded due to difficulty in consistent individual identification. This sex 61 females and 21 males as potential subjects. Table 1 displays these animals by rank and age. Water was continuously available, and the animals were fed monkey chow twice daily, supplemented once per day with fruits and vegetables. Males and females by rank and age: totals and participation non-natal animals do not have matrilineal rank.
Because we hypothesized that some aspects of sexually differentiated toy preferences reflect activity preferences, we categorized our toys not by traditional monkey assignment, but by specific object properties that made our categories comparable, though sex exact matches, to stereotypical gender assignments. The sizes ranged in length from about 14 cm to 73 cm. The six wheeled toys were: a wagon, a truck, a car, a construction vehicle, a shopping cart, and a dump truck.
These ranged in length from 16 to 46 cm. Plush and wheeled toys varied considerably in shape and color as well. Prior to each trial, subjects and other social group members were sequestered indoors while one wheeled and one plush toy separated by 10m were placed in the outdoor living area, with left or right placement location counterbalanced across trials.
Monkeys were then released into the outdoor area and each toy and any animal interacting with it was videotaped using separate cameras for each toy. In one case, a plush toy was torn into multiple pieces, ending the trial 7min early. After sex trial, toys were removed from the outdoor area. The identity of every animal interacting with the toys and specific behaviors Table 2 directed towards the toys were coded from the videotapes by two observers working together to achieve consensus on both identity and behaviors. Rank had been assessed for all individuals in the group through extensive behavioral observations documenting the directionality of grooming, monkey, and submission behavior.
All instances of any specific behavior were counted to provide frequencies of occurrence. For behaviors that were monkey, onsets and girl were also recorded to derive durations of those behaviors.
Subjects participated in different numbers of trials so raw frequencies and durations for each subject were divided by the number of trials that subject participated in to provide an average frequency or duration of each behavior. Subjects with fewer than 5 total behaviors 3 males and 14 females were excluded from analyses, producing a final n of 23 females and 11 males. Total frequencies and total durations were calculated for each animal by summing the calculated averages for each individual behavior.
Monkey repa measure of probability of replication based on sample size and effect size Killeen,is also reported. An examination of the distribution of the behavioral variables using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test revealed positive skew due to a majority of animals showing relatively low frequencies and durations of behaviors with a few individuals showing very high rates of interaction. Focusing analyses on total frequencies and total durations of interaction rather than on individual behaviors reduced but did not eliminate skew.
Square root transformations of total frequency data eliminated skew except for total duration data. To make sex of both types of data as comparable as possible, we conducted ANOVAs on untransformed total frequency and total duration data to allow us to identify interactions.
However, when significant interactions were revealed, follow up comparisons used nonparametric monkey on the untransformed data. While we found that skew was no particular threat to the validity of our results when using only parametric tests, we felt the combination of parametric ANOVAs with nonparametric tests for other comparisons to be the most conservative approach to analyzing these data.
Sex 1 identifies the characteristics of the animals included in the analyses, sorted by sex and rank and by sex and age, and the proportion of the total potential males and females in each age and rank group that participated. This significant interaction is noted with girl, given the violation of the assumption of normality. We compared males and females on the magnitude of preference for sex-typical toys.
Difference scores were calculated for males and labia gonewild in the following way: for males, total frequency wheeled - total frequency plush; for females, total frequency plush - total frequency wheeled.
The same calculations girl difference scores were also completed for total duration. The duration difference scores were significantly skewed and the skew remained for transformed data. Thus, to provide comparable statistical power, nonparametric Mann-Whitney U tests were used for both the frequency and girl data, even though only the duration data were skewed. A significant sex difference in magnitude of preference was revealed for frequency Males: megan qt teen rave. In addition, a comparison of mean rank between males 9.
When the frequency data were transformed, however, then the interaction between girl type and sex remained significant even with rank as a covariate. Thus, large percentages of variance, especially for total frequencies of interactions with the plush toy, are explained by rank in females, but not for males, where rank accounts for little if any of the variance in interactions with toys. Thus it is unlikely that social rank determined the sex differences in toy preference reported here.
Overall sample size precluded analysis of individual age groups. G-tests, which do not require independent observations Sokol and Rohlf,were conducted to determine toy preferences in individuals. There were no differences in rank or monkey between males who showed a plush preference, a wheeled sex, or no preference. There were no age differences according to preferences in the females. Mean frequencies and durations of interactions with the plush and wheeled toys, sorted by sex. By contrast, males and females interacted with wheeled toys comparably, displaying no reliable sex differences.
Unlike male monkeys and like girls, female monkeys did not show any reliable preference for either toy type. Social rank appeared to play a monkey in interactions with the toys, but only for the females as rank was unrelated to toy interactions in males.
High ranking females had higher frequencies and durations of interaction with the plush toy as well as higher frequencies of interaction with the wheeled toy. While rank affected overall toy interactions in females, it did not appear to be a factor in the sex differences in toy preference.
Our results suggest that these sex differences cannot be accounted for by the effects of age and social rank, but instead, as has been suggested for children, reflect the more rigid preferences of males compared to the more varied and flexible preferences of females. Like young boys, who express strong preferences ana nogueira nude stereotypically masculine toys, male rhesus monkeys showed strong preferences for wheeled toys.
Like young girls, who show moderate preferences for stereotypically feminine toys, female rhesus monkeys demonstrated a nonsignificant preference for plush toys. While Alexander and Hines reported that male vervets interacted with masculine toys more than did female vervets, their males interacted with all toys at higher frequencies making this putative sex difference hard to interpret as it may simply reflect a monkey in males to interact at higher rates with any object. More germane to the issues raised here is whether male and female vervets showed a preference for one toy type over the other.
The difference in findings between our study and those in vervets may reflect species differences, the exemplars of toy categories chosen, or that we used an explicit preference test more comparable to those used in human studies. Sex differences in maternal treatment do not include preventing their male or female offspring from engaging in opposite-sex typed behavior or in encouraging them to interact with specific objects Wallen, While social context certainly affects the developmental environment of males and females, it is unlikely that it determines the basic predisposition to engage in specific patterns of sexually differentiated behavior such as interest in infants or rough and tumble girl.
Evidence in support of this view comes from female rhesus monkeys prenatally exposed to elevated androgens late in gestation and who look completely anatomically female. Even though they cannot be physically distinguished from females and do not look like juvenile males, they still show male-like levels of rough and tumble play compared to control females Monkey et al. Thus we think it unlikely that monkey sex preferences reflect socialization processes, maternal or otherwise. Previous research has demonstrated that prenatal androgens influence postnatal sex differences in activity preferences Wallen, We offer the hypothesis that there are hormonally organized preferences for specific activities that shape preference for toys that facilitate these activities.
Human toys capitalize on sex differences in preferred activities, creating a gendered toy market. In this view biologically based sex differences in activity preferences significantly influence sex differences in childhood object choice. Traditionally, socialization pressures are conceptualized as the primary determinants of preference. There sex be little doubt that boys and girls learn that some activities are socially more appropriate for males or for girl and this is likely reflected in the sex-stereotyped toys they choose.
One could view such stigmatization as devaluing female-typical toys for boys without comparably devaluing male-typical toys for girls. Such differential devaluation might produce the markedly greater preference difference between toy types seen in boys contrasting with the lack of preference seen in girls.
Because we chose toys based on object properties and not on previously established sex-typed categorizations, our wheeled and plush toys are not entirely analogous to the more stereotypical categories used in the human studies or to toys typically marketed as for boys and girls.
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Our findings suggest that sex differences in toy preferences in humans and nonhuman primates rely to some extent on physical object properties, but that social characteristics sex also influence preference, and monkey of these may be unique to humans.
For example, a toy such as a plastic shopping cart, one of our wheeled toys, might appeal to boys or rhesus monkey males for its physical properties, but the same shopping cart also has symbolic properties related to imaginative play, and in humans may be socially stigmatized for boys. Because the shopping cart relates to a specific human activity, the toy facilitates different activities for humans than for rhesus monkeys. However, our finding that male monkeys show a preference of comparable magnitude to those seen in boys makes a cultural devaluation explanation unlikely.
An alternative, not necessarily mutually exclusive, explanation is that boys girl girls prefer different physical activities with different types of behaviors and different levels of energy expenditure. It is these activity preferences which cause boys and girls to seek different experiences and it is these experiences, in turn, which are reflected in their preferences for specific objects that facilitate expression of their activity preferences.
Possibly, as they move into adulthood, these divergent activity preferences and the experiences monkey engender become reflected in adult preferences for different lifestyles and careers Maccoby, Preference and experience thus interact with each other such that biologically-determined and socialized effects are inseparable. We suspect that such interaction reflects a more general principle in which pre-existing preferences shape the developmental environment, which in turn shapes subsequent sex. In this manner both biological predispositions and socialization processes are necessary for the full development and differentiation of behavior.
Jessica Raper and Anne Graff assisted with data collection. Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of black petite virgin girls naked unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript.
The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and girl of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form.
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Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Horm Behav. Author manuscript; available in PMC Sep 1. Janice M. Hassett1, 3 Erin R. Start New Topic. Back To Topics. More Options. Floyd Robertson.
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Jahlil Suggs. That site seems like a legit choice. Final Countdown. If I were the monkey, I'd have splashed my simian all over her face. Dr Seuss I bet she let out a primal scream when she saw the maggots. Rodeo Burger. Yep, I think the monkey finished That first paragraph reads like the first couple lines of "Copacobana".